Nanoformulations

Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) has made significant contributions in the development of improved cultivars and their relevant production, protection and processing technologies in fourteen mandated crops, covering cereals, coarse millets, pulses, oilseeds, fodder, fibre  and horticultural crops. These crop varieties have been widely adopted in their recommended areas / agro-climatic zones.

A process for the preparation of amphiphilic polymers based nano-formulation of Azadirachtin-A

Use of nano-formulation is not a prior art. The present technological innovation concentrates on preparation of nano-formualtion of azadirachtin-A which will release bioactive material in controlled manner.

Salient technical features :

  • The formulation of azadirachtin-A available in market as on today is EC based on oil and azadirachtin-A.
  • The auxiliaries used in such formulation are organic solvents and surfactants which are sometime phytotoxic to crops. 
  • Therefore,  there is a need to develop non phytotoxic, effective and efficient  spray able formulations containing azadirachtin-A for combating the pest (insects, pathogen and nematodes against it has established bioactivity and as a seed treatment for  improving germination, viability, plantability /or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a seed that is treated with such a product and planted in a location having infested by fungal / nematode/insect or any other recognized pest for the agronomic plant and against which the bioactive compound in reference has ability to combat.

Performance results:

  •  These products are also useful in improving the storability of the seed by checking fungal/insect /other pest infestation during storage.
  • Additionally, such products are safe to handle and cost effective.
  • Neem based products are already in use but high cost and effectiveness of azadirachtin-A limits their use.
  • The nano-formulation will be more effective and efficient. Since seed coating technology is going to be of paramount importance in preserving the quality of the seed as well as in providing protection against pest disease both during storage and immediately on sowing.
  • In view of current tirade against the use of synthetic pesticides, botanical products have been emerged as a viable option for pest control.

Benefits:

  • The products stand out as distinct input for agriculture, particularly the safer agriculture exemplified by organic farming, integrated pest management and the like, sought by the health and environment conscious man all over the world.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Besides,  being of value in plant protection-the area of scope of the present technology, have been used in other areas of  human utility including agriculture, medicine, toiletries, cosmetics, energy, plant and animal nutrition, and others.
  • By virtue of innovative technology, neem pesticides are likely to become a major pest management option in global agriculture.
  • The technology holds vast scope in the developing and developed countries.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012.

A process for the preparation of amphiphilic polymers for development of nano formulations of ?-cyfluthrin

Cyfluthrin is a non-systemic synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control chewing and sucking insects. Through contact and stomach poisoning, it attacks the nervous system, resulting in swift debilitation and has a long residual effect.

Salient technical features :

  • These nano-formulations can be used for the control of  pests such as ants, silverfish, cockroaches, grain beetles, fleas, flies, European corn borer, Colorado potato beetle, and many others.
  • The innovative techniques such as nano-formulations based on amphiphilic polymers will not only improve the existing formulations but also will help in increasing the bio-availability of ?-cyfluthrin for the control of pests.
  • The formulations available for ?-cyfluthrin are emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powder, liquids, aerosols, granules.
  • However, the nano formulations of ?-cyfluthrin based on amphiphilic polymers have never been used.
  • Therefore, there is a need to develop effective, efficient and stable innovative formulations containing ?-cyfluthrin for improving the availability of ?-cyfluthrin for a longer period of time.
  • Such formulations are better as compared to the conventional formulations as they do not require either a surfactant or a carrier for the development of such formulations as the polymers themselves act as both.
  • Moreover, the synthesis of such polymers is inexpensive as they require cheap raw materials excluding the use of solvents, making the synthetic preocdure environmentally benign
  • Additionally, such products are safe to handle and cost effective.

Performance results:

  • The laboratory trials have been done in IARI and the emerging results have shown promise.

Benefits:

  • The global agrochemical market size is nearly $200 billion in 2010 and Asia is the largest market for agrochemicals (approx. 43 %) with leading position of India and China.
  • With such a big market in India and abroad and keeping this thing in mind that rise in energy prices in future are going to be an economic driving factor for increased efficiency in both production and application of agrochemicals, highly efficient nano-formulations of agrochemicals, such as ?-cyfluthrin, are very promising
  • So there is enormous potentiality of the present nano formulation of imidacloprid in pesticide market both in India and abroad
  • Moreover, nanotechnology being widely used in drug delivery with a fair amount of success, agrochemical industries are also looking towards this development of Science to bring out newer products having better efficiency.
  • Single application of the formulation can be manipulated for insect/nematode control during the whole growth span of the crop.
  • This will also take care of the current tirade against synthetic pesticides.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • It has a high value in plant protection and by virtue of innovative technology, nano formulations are likely to become a major pest management option in global agriculture.
  • The technology holds vast scope in the developing and developed countries.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012

A process for the preparation of amphiphilic polymers for development of nano formulations of carbofuran

To counter environmental losses and maintain the concentration above the minimum threshold of activity, application of excessive amount of conventional formulation of carbofuran is required. Increase in application rate, however, is likely to increase the potential adverse impact on the environment.

Salient technical features :

  • Because of the great potential of carbofuran as pest control agent, it is widely used for the control of insects in several field crops. 
  • In order to achieve control of insects, it is necessary to maintain an appropriate concentration of chemicals in contact with the plants for a sufficient amount of time for absorption to take place.
  • The use of controlled release (CR) formulations can in many cases, supply the a.i. at the required rate and thus reduce the amount of chemical needed for pest control, thereby protecting the environment from the deleterious effects of the pesticides.
  • The innovative techniques such as Nano formulations based on amphiphilic polymers will not only improve the existing commercial 3G formulations but also will help in increasing the bio-availability of carbofuran for the control of pests.
  • The present technological innovation concentrates on preparation of nano-formualtion of systemic insecticide carbofuran which will release bioactive material in controlled manner and will also improve upon the existing 3G formulation.
  • The present formulation will enhance the bioactivity of carbofuran by extending the release time and at the same time by higher penetration to the target sites due to nano size.
  • The present innovation can be successfully utilized to reduce the dosage and frequency of applications.

Performance results:

  • The laboratory and field trials have been done in IARI and the emerging results have shown promise.

Benefits:

  • The synthesized amphiphilic polymers used for preparation of nanoformulations are environment friendly and do not affect non-target organisms

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • It has a high value in plant protection and by virtue of innovative technology; nano formulations are likely to become a major pest management option in global agriculture. The technology holds vast scope in the developing and developed countries

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012.

A process for the preparation of amphiphilic polymers for the development of nano formulation of Thiram

The present technological innovation on preparation of nano-formualtion offungicide thiram which will release bioactive material in controlled manner.

Salient technical features :

  • The smaller size of the developed formulation of thiram will help in being rapidly taken up by plant.
  • These nano-formulations can be used to prevent crop damage in the field and to protect harvested crops (apples, peaches, and strawberries) from deterioration in storage or transport.
  • These can also be used as a seed protectant (e.g. small seeded vegetables, large seeded vegetables, cereal grains and other seeds, coniferous seeds, cotton seed, ornamental seeds, and soybeans) and to protect turf from fungal diseases and also as an animal repellent to protect crops from damage by rabbits, rodents, and deer, sucking pests like aphids, white flies, thrips, scales, plant bugs, flies, etc.
  • At the same time the nano-formulation can be used as seed coating agent for improving germination, viability, plantability of a seed or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a treated seed.
  • These can also be applied to seeds prior to planting both by commercial seed treaters and on-farm applicators.
  • Seed coats based on nano formulations of thiram will help in improving germination, viability, plantability of a seed or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a treated seed that is planted in a pest infested location, by preventing the fungal / nematode/insect infestation that is a pest for the agronomic plant and against which thiram has bioactivity.
  • Innovation in thiram nano-formulation is driven by the aim to boost the yield potential of seeds, at much lower application rate compared to existing formulations and thus to increase the productivity per acre, to increase resistance of agricultural production towards environmental stress and to better utilization of soil by crops with respect to its moisture and nutrients.

Performance results:

  • The release study of developed nano formulations have been done in IARI and the emerging results have shown better results than commercially available formulaions

Benefits:

  • Seed coats based on nano formulations of thiram will help in improving germination, viability, plantability of a seed or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a treated seed that is planted in a pest infested location, by preventing the fungal / nematode/insect infestation that is a pest for the agronomic plant and against which thiram has bioactivity.
  • Innovation in thiram nano-formulation is driven by the aim to boost the yield potential of seeds, at much lower application rate compared to existing formulations and thus to increase the productivity per acre, to increase resistance of agricultural production towards environmental stress and to better utilization of soil by crops with respect to its moisture and nutrients.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Seed is likely to play a major role in India’s efforts to usher in to second green revolution.
  • Several national and multinational seed companies have already geared up to promote their business interest in the country.
  • Since seed coating technology is going to be of paramount importance in preserving the quality of the seed as well as in providing protection against pest disease both during storage and immediately on sowing.
  • In view of current tirade against the use of synthetic pesticides, products having the potential to be effective at relatively low dosage or one time application, can be a viable option for pest control.
  • Hence, the encapsulation of thiram in nano micelles, formed by the self assembly of copolymers, can be a fruitful proposition for National and International companies both as more and more companies are looking for a better alternative for conventional CR formulations.
  • Moreover, nanotechnology being widely used in drug delivery with a fair amount of success, agrochemical industries are also looking towards this development of Science to bring out newer products having better efficiency.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012

A process for the preparation of nano-formulation of Imidacloprid based on amphiphilic polymers

The present technological innovation concentrates on preparation of nano-formualtion of systemic insecticide imidacloprid which will release bioactive material in controlled manner.

Salient technical features :

  • The present formulation will enhanced the bioactivity of imidacloprid by extending the release time and at the same time by higher penetration to the target sites due to nano size.
  • The present innovation can be successfully utilized to reduce the dosage and frequency of applications.
  • The present technological innovation concentrates on preparation of nano-formualtion of systemic insecticide Imidacloprid which will release bioactive material in controlled manner.
  • The high water solubility (0.51g/ L) and low Koc of Imidacloprid, indicate a low tendency to be adsorbed to soil particles and thus ensuing potentiality to leach down to ground water.
  • At the same time the activity of Imidacloprid get reduced due to higher photodegradation. Thus there is a need of special delivery system for controlled release of Imidacloprid at the target sites.
  • The present formulation will enhanced the bioactivity of Imidacloprid by extending the release time and at the same time by higher penetration to the target sites due to nano size.
  • The present innovation can be successfully utilized to reduce the dosage and frequency of applications.
  • The use of Imidacloprid as seed treatments for controlling several pests in different crops is very well established.
  • However, nano-formulations of Imidacloprid based on amphiphilic polymers have never been used as potential seed coating agents.
  • Seed coats based on nano-formulation of the present invention will help in improving germination, viability, plantability /or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a seed that is treated with such a product and planted in a location having infested by insect or any other recognized pest for the agronomic plant and against which the bioactive compound in reference has ability to combat.
  • These products are also useful in improving the storability of the seed by checking insect /other pest infestation during storage. Additionally, such products are safe to handle and cost effective.

Benefits:

  • The new technology is bench scale. The technology may be licensed to the interested Agrochemical industry for further development and its possible commercialization
  • The products stand out as distinct input for agriculture, particularly the safer agriculture sought by the health and environment conscious man all over the world.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • By virtue of innovative technology, controlled release formulations of pesticides are likely to become a major pest management option in global agriculture.
  • The technology holds vast scope in the developing and developed countries.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012

A process for the preparation of nano-formulation of Thiamethoxam based on amphiphilic polymers

The present technological innovation concentrates on preparation of nano-formualtion of systemic insecticide Thiamethoxam which will release bioactive material in controlled manner.

Salient technical features :

  • The present formulation will enhanced the bioactivity of Thiamethoxam by extending the release time and at the same time by higher penetration to the target sites due to nano size.
  • The present innovation can be successfully utilized to reduce the dosage and frequency of applications

Performance results (with respect to efficiency sustainability etc.):

  • The formulation of Thiamethoxam available in market as on today is SC, FS, WS and WG.  At the same time the activity of Thiamethoxam get reduced due to high sorptivity in soil clay.
  • Thus there is a need of special delivery system for controlled release of Thiamethoxam at the target sites.
  • The auxiliaries used in such formulation are clay or clay like materials and these formulations show potential for leaching under heavy rainfall condition due to high solubility of thiamethoxam (4.1 g/L).
  • The use of Thiamethoxam as seed treatments for controlling several pests in different crops is very well established.
  • However, nano-formulations of Thiamethoxam based on amphiphilic polymers have never been used as potential seed coating agents.
  • Therefore,  there is a need to develop non phytotoxic, effective, efficient and stable seed coat formulations containing Thiamethoxam for improving germination, viability of seed /or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a seed.
  • Seed coats based on nano-formulation of the present invention will help in improving germination, viability, plantability /or vigour of an agronomic plant that is grown from a seed that is treated with such a product and planted in a location having infested by insect or any other recognized pest for the agronomic plant and against which the bioactive compound in reference has ability to combat.
  • Safe to handle and cost effective.
  • These products are also useful in improving the storability of the seed by checking insect /other pest infestation during storage. Additionally, such products are

Benefits:

  • The new technology is bench scale.
  • The technology may be licensed to the interested Agrochemical industry for further development and its possible commercialization The products stand out as distinct input for agriculture, particularly the safer agriculture sought by the health and environment conscious man all over the world.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • By virtue of innovative technology, controlled release formulation of pesticides are likely to become a major pest management option in global agriculture.
  • The technology holds vast scope in the developing and developed countries

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Indian Patent Application 257/ DEL/2012.

 

Division of Agricultural Chemicals

Dr. V. T. Gajbhiye
Head
Phone: 011-25841390/25843272
FAX: 011-25843272
E-mail: head_chem@iari.res.in 
           vtg_agchem@iari.res.in