Bio Pesticides

Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) has made significant contributions in the development of improved cultivars and their relevant production, protection and processing technologies in fourteen mandated crops, covering cereals, coarse millets, pulses, oilseeds, fodder, fibre  and horticultural crops. These crop varieties have been widely adopted in their recommended areas / agro-climatic zones. 

Biopesticidal Pusa NemaGel

S. thermophilum is the first heat tolerant indigenous nematode species described from the country. The optimum temperature for most of the species/ strains ofSteinernemais 20-25°C or less, S. thermophilumhas been found to be effective at 25-40 °C. PusaNemaGel formulation enhanced shelf life of the nematode for upto 6 months even at higher temperatures of up to 45°C. 

Salient technical features :

  • In this formulation, the nematode have been entrapped and immobilized for maintaining their viability and enhancing the shelf life. It can be used as soil application or foliar application depending upon the target pests.
  • This formulation is ideal for use in the management of harmful insect pests in most of the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. 
  • There are no environmental and bio-safety issues involved as the formulation and the bioagent are known to have no adverse effects.

Performance results:

  • S. thermophilum  has been found highly virulent against various insect pests belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Homoptera and Isoptera .
  • In the field, it was found highly efficacious in the management of white grubs, subterranean termites, gram pod borer, tobacco caterpillar, diamond back moth, brinjal shoot borer etc.
  • The scale up production of this formulation is cost effective and easy to apply. Once the formulation is applied to the infected field, the nematodes are released slowly which attack the target pests resulting in the death of the host within 24-48 h.
  • Nematodes multiply in the dead insect, complete 2-3 generations and then emerge out en-masse from the body of the insect cadavers and attack the new hosts. Thus, if the formulation is applied once, it remains effective for longer time over the years.

Likely cost:

  • Approximately Rs. 200 per hectare excluding the cost of labour.

Benefits:

  • This novel biopestcidal formulation will fetch better revenue for the entrepreneurs keeping in view the increasing demand for organic agro-products.

Social/health/environmental/other benefits:

  • Like other strains / species of entomopathogenic nematodes, S.  thermophilumhas been found to be safe for plants, animals, human beings; and  is environment friendly.
  • Theentomopathogenic nematodes have been exempted from registration in many countries. 

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Patent Application No. (8115/RQ-DL/2006).

Development of substituted alkene as a potential nematicide

Salient technical features :

  • Chemicals are essentially used under such condition where other methods are inadequate, not feasible and not economical to use.
  • Since all the method of nematode control offer far less certainty of killing the nematodes, the nematicides are not likely to be dispensed with altogether.
  • Nematicides have been found to be the most important tool to demonstrate the spectacular yield increase.
  • The objective of the present invention is to manufacture a new nematicide through a simple and efficient method in less time, and formulate for end use.
  • Its nematicidal activity was tested and compared with commercial compounds (fenamiphos and triazophos).

Performance results:

  •  The invention is found to be more effective against root knot and reniform nematodes at relatively low concentration than commercial products fenamiphos and triazophos.
  • The compound needs to be registered.

Benefits:

  • The well-known nematicides are manufactured through a semi-continuous operation or using batch process of several steps.
  • These are energy intensive, hazardous and time consuming processes.
  • Therefore, there is a need to develop new nematicides through a simple and efficient method in less time, in less number of steps and formulate for end use.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • The technology will benefit farmers as they will get more efficient product, cheaper and less hazardous than either organophposphorus or carbamates being used in huge quantities.
  • It is new chemistry, and product can be sold world-wide after registration.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Patent Application No. 2052/DEL/2011

Pusa 5SD

Salient Technical features:

  • The novel seed dressing bio-formulation “Pusa 5SD” has been developed from the potential isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (IARI P-4; MTCC No. 5371) for the management of soil and seed borne diseases of crop plants. The formulation showed longer shelf (viability) life and suitable for 2 years of storage at room temperature 25+80C.
  • The novel soil application bio-formulation “Pusa Bio-pellet 10G” has been developed from the potential isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (IARI P-4; MTCC No. 5371) for the management of soil and seed borne diseases of crop plants. The formulation showed longer shelf (viability) life as 1.5 years of storage at room temperature 25+80C.

Performance results:

  • Both the formulations were found effective against several soil and seed borne diseases of crop plants namely wilt of chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) and dry root rot (Rhizoctonia bataticola) and wet root rot/web blight (Rhizoctonia solani) of chickpea and mungbean and stem rot of chickpea (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).
  • It increased seed emergence by providing protection to germinating seeds in the soil, as a growth promoter enhanced shoot and root length of treated plants and increased grain yield under field conditions. Pusa 5SD showed superiority over recommended fungicides for seed treatment (carbendazim + TMTD and carboxin) in respect of increasing seed germination, enhancing plant vigour and grain yield and reducing disease incidence.
  • It is compatible with a fungicides namely carboxin, tetramethyl thiuram disulphide and thiophanate methyl and Rhizobium spp. when applied as seed treatment under sick field conditions.
  • Pusa 5SD as seed treatment increased the seed germination and grain yield and decreased diseases (wilt/root rot) incidence in chickpea at farmer’s field in Bagpat (UP), ARS, Durgapura (Rajasthan) and BAU, Ranchi (Jharkhand).
  • Pusa 5SD (T. harzianum) alone in combination with vitavax power was evaluated for the management of wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris), dry root rot (R. bataticola) and collar rot (S. rolfsii) of chickpea at 4 different locations (Sehore, Delhi, Rahuri and Jabalpur) under AICRP-chickpea.  A combination of Pusa 5SD and vitavax power provided lowest wilt incidence at 3 different locations followed by fungicidal seed treatment (carboxin/carbendazim + thiram) and Pusa 5SD alone. Similar treatment combinations were found effective against dry root rot and collar rot.  

Likely cost:

  • About Rs. 200 / kg formulation

Benefits:

  • The formulations have longer storage life and effective against wide range of plant diseases caused by different plant pathogenic fungi.
  • The strain of T. harzianum used for the development of the formulation has ability to suppress different plant pathogenic fungi and also has ability to enhance plant growth as growth promoter and grain yield. 

Social/health/environmental/other benefits:

  • Eco-friendly option for disease management in plants

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Pusa 5SD application No 2032/DEL/2008.
  • Pusa Biopellet application No 2033/DEL/2008

Storage stable reduced azadirachtins and products based on them with pest control properties

Reduced Azadirachtin formulations

Salient Technical features:

  • An improved process has been developed for the preparation of storage stable reduced Azadirachtin biopesticides. Azadirachtin extracted from neem seed kernel is subjected to catalytic hydrogenation to obtain reduced Azadirachtin. The preparation is characterized by reduction of the double bond(s) in azadirachtin molecule to yield dihydroazadirachtin (DHA) and/or tetrahydroazadirachtin (THA) derivatives. Reaction takes place at ambient or at elevated pressure and temperature. 
  • A pesticidal composition is comprised of DHA, THA or mixture of DHA and THA and their formulations wherein the active ingredient may be admixed with solid or liquid carriers (diluents), and adjuvants, such as surfactants, adhesives, stabilizers, synergists and or potentiators.
  • The formulated products may contain up to 20% by weight of active ingredient.

Performance results:

  • Reduced Azadirachtin formulations are effective as insect antifeedant and insect growth inhibitors.
  • These display higher degree of activity against Spodoptera litura, Spilosoma obliqua and other pests of vegetables, fruits, and other crops.
  • The products have been additionally found effective against the phytophagous fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and the root knot nematode Meliodogynae incognita. The formulation can be applied in an amount ranging from 20 to 200 g/ha to control insect pests on agricultural crops and stored grain commodities. The process can be demonstrated at bench scale

Benefits:

  • Hazards associated with synthetic pesticides are non-existent with reduced azadirachtin based neem biopesticides.
  • Being ecologically sound these products can find application in organic agriculture. Raw materials-neem seed kernel, solvents, catalysts and formulant(s) are locally available.
  • The product(s) are stable, safe and cost effective

Social/health/environmental/other benefits:

  • Environment friendly botanical pesticide

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Technology transferred to NRDC for commercialization

Substituted benzaldoxime ethers as potentiasl insecticide synergists and pest control agents

Insecticide synergist Technology

Oxime ether formulation

Salient technical features:

  • Process has been developed for the preparation of biologically active novel aromatic oxime ethers derived from piperonal, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, veratraldehyde, dillaldehyde and other ketonic compounds.
  • These are not only effective as IGR, nematicide, or fungicide but also display excellent insecticide synergistic activity. The process can be demonstrated at bench scale. The products do not have known undesired effect on the environment. 

Performance results:

  • Some of the compounds are active as insecticide synergists exhibiting activity far greater than piperonylbutoxide (PBO).
  • The products are additionally effective as IGR and controls fungi and nematodes as well. May also check development of resistance in insect pests.

Benefits:

  • The products enhance the insecticidal effectiveness of pyrethroid, carbamate and other group of insecticides. Required raw materials are readily available

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Environment friendly botanical synergist

 

Division of Agricultural Chemicals

Dr. V. T. Gajbhiye
Head
Phone: 011-25841390/25843272
FAX: 011-25843272
E-mail: head_chem@iari.res.in 
           vtg_agchem@iari.res.in

Division of Nematology

Dr. Uma Rao
Head, Principal Scientist
Phone:011-25846626,25842721,
          25846400, 27550355
Fax: 011-25846626
E-mail: head_nema@iari.res.in 
           umarao@iari.res.in