Crop Production

Aqua-fertilisation Technology

Aqua-fertilisation technology involves artificial drilling of water in the vicinity of the seed zone in rainfed rabi crops for achieving optimum plant population and plant vigour.

 Salient technical features :

  • This technology is useful during rabi season for north-western plain of India under limited moisture conditions.
  • Aqua-sowing of wheat, chickpea and mustard crop with 15,000-20,000 litre water/hectare enhance the productivity of these crops.

Performance results:

  •  About 20-25% increase in yield can be achieved with aqua-sowing technology.

Benefits:

  • Aqua-sowing technology has good impact under dryland conditions and it increases the income by Rs. 6,000/ha over dry sowing.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • This technology will increase income of dryland farmers and it is eco-friendly and has easy social acceptance.

Any special requirement for its successful realization ; any other standards etc.:

  • Aqua-ferti seed drill should be easily accessible to dryland farmers.

 

Bed Planting Technology

Specification and salient technical features (principles for successful adoption, suitability/recommendation of technology to different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technology of know-how, eco-friendliness to the environment of the factors incorporated in the technology etc.):

  • Bed planting with 37.5 cm wide, 20 cm high beds and 30 cm furrows is optimum configuration which is better than conventional flat planting for growing three rows of wheat in rabi, one row of maize and two rows of soybean in kharif

Performance results (with respect to efficiency, sustainability etc.):

  • Bed preparation along with mechanized seeding of row crops like maize, wheat, soybean, cotton, etc., in one operation, thus saves fuel cost and manpower.
  • Reduces seed rate.
  • Reduces fertilizer and irrigation water application

Likely cost (cost of intervention and output per unit area):

  • Bed planter (cost Rs. 25000/- approximately)
  • Enhanced crop yield by 5-10%

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers and its benefits over conventional technologies/know-how in terms of saving in cost of production, inputs, timeliness; and other pertinent information:

  • As compared to conventional planting, growing of these crops on beds not only save fuel and labor but also water, seed, fertilizer and pesticides, besides maintaining the same or higher crop productivity.
  • It also improves soil physical environment as evident from the reduction in bulk density and penetration resistance, and the increase in infiltration rate and root growth.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Provides drainage under rainfed conditions where water logging can occur.
  • Reduces compaction because of controlled traffic pattern.
  • Reduces crop lodging.
  • Easy field access for hand weeding during later crop stage and other inter-cultivation practices.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Conducted demonstration trails in farmers field and in IARI experimental field.

Any special requirement for its successful realization ; any other standards etc.:

  • Bed planter

 

Chisel Technology

Specification and salient technical features (principles for successful adoption, suitability/recommendation of technology to different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technology of know-how, eco-friendliness to the environment of the factors incorporated in the technology etc.)

  • Productivity of the soils having high mechanical impedance layers at shallow depth is poor due to its adverse effect on the plant growth, especially rainfed crops.
  • The high mechanical impedance layers (hardpan) at shallow depths are developed either naturally or due to the tillage operations carried out in sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam
  • It involves chiseling of the dry soil to 30-45 cm depth at 50-120 cm intervals depending upon the location of impedance layers and row to row spacing of the plants.
  • In this technology, a chisel, generally mounted in the place of a plough, is used to break sub-surface soil layer soils.

Performance results (with respect to efficiency, sustainability etc.):

  •  The chiseling encourages deep root growth, and increases infiltration of rain and irrigation water, thereby increasing the water storage in the sub-surface soil and improving aeration in the root zone of temporarily water logged soil

Likely cost (cost of intervention and output per unit area):

  • Cost of chiseller Rs. 8000 and operation charges in the field Rs. 4000/ha.
  • Enhance the productivity of wheat and maize crops by 23 and 41% respectively.

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers and its benefits over conventional technologies/know-how in terms of saving in cost of production, inputs, timeliness; and other pertinent information:

  • The chisel technology was developed to reduce the sub-surface mechanical impedance of these soils.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • These soils impede the root penetration to fertile sub-soil region, the store-house of moisture nutrients.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Successfully conducted demonstration trails in farmers field as well as in the IARI experimental area.

Any special requirement for its successful realization; any other standards etc.:

  • Chiseller (cost Rs. 8000/- approximately)

 

Intercropping of Pearlmillet with Pigeonpea or Clusterbean or Mungbean

Intercropping of pearlmillet with pigeonpea or clusterbean or mungbean in paired row (30/70 cm) will enhance the total crop productivity over the pure crop of pearlmillet with application of 80 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha as basal.

Salient technical features :

  • Intercropping of pearlmillet with pigeonpea or clusterbean or mungbean in paired row (30/70 cm) will enhance the total crop productivity over the pure crop of pearlmillet with application of 80 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha as basal.
  • Intercropping would give higher land equivalent ratio (LER) and equivalent yield.

Performance results:

  •  The total productivity of the system would increase by 20-25%.

Benefits:

  • This technology can enhance 15-20% income of dryland farmers.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Social and economic condition of farmers will improve.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Not commercialized but has been documented in research journals, book etc. and being adopted by the farmers.

 

Intercropping system for crop

Intercropping system has been found to make better utilisation of growth resources like land, water, sunlight, air etc. along with other inputs.

Salient technical features :

  • It has been found to give better yield and profit compared to sole cropping. Standardized following intercropping systems for different situations in north- western plain zone of India:
  • Potato + Indian mustard (3:1 ratio) / linseed (3:3 ratio)
  • Winter maize + potato / palak / methi (Paired row in 2:1 row ratio or other combinations)
  • African mustard + chickpea/ pea/ radish (Paired row at 2:1 ratio)
  • Wheat + mustard  (6:1 row ratio)
  • Wheat + Chickpea (1:4 row ratio)
  • Pearlmillet + Clusterbean (1:1 row ratio)

Performance results:

  • Increase in productivity and profitability ranging from 15-20 %. Weed suppression by 10-15% over sole cropping.

Likely cost:

  • Only about 5% increase in cost as compared to sole cropping. Output is 15-20% higher.

Benefits:

  • Additional net returns ranging from Rs. 5,000 to 10,000/ha over sole cropping.
  • It increases the input-use efficiency.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Reduction in herbicide doses and efficient use of input especially nutrients, water and light.

 

Soil Compaction Technology

Specification and salient technical features (principles for successful adoption, suitability/recommendation of technology to different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technology of know-how, eco-friendliness to the environment of the factors incorporated in the technology etc.):

  • Productivity of coarse-textured loamy sand soil is relatively low due to its excessive permeability, which causes deep percolation of water and nutrients beyond root zone, discouraging the farmers to use high level of these costly inputs.
  • A ‘compaction technology’ which brings the soil particles close to each other, was developed to reduce percolation losses of water and nutrients, evaporation losses of water, and irrigation water requirement of crops grown on these soils.
  • It involves having 4 to 20 rounds of a tractor or bullock drawn roller (depending upon its weight), in the field at an optimum moisture or within 24 hours of irrigation/heavy rainfall.

 

Performance results (with respect to efficiency, sustainability etc.):

  • The compacted sandy or loamy sand soils have 30-75 per cent reduces infiltration rate, require 40 per cent less water in each irrigation.

Likely cost (cost of intervention and output per unit area):

  • Roller operation cost in the field: Rs. 4000/ha.
  • Enhanced the production potential of these soils by 15%

How the new technology will impact the income of the farmers and its benefits over conventional technologies/know-how in terms of saving in cost of production, inputs, timeliness; and other pertinent information:

  • Retain moisture for longer period
  • Improve germination
  • Increasing the uptake of nutrients
  • Provide anchorage to plant roots

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Reduce the attack of white ant and white grub.
  • Reducing the leaching losses to a large extent

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Conducted of successful demonstration trails in the farmers field.

Any special requirement for its successful realization; any other standards etc.:

  • Iron roller of weight 450 kg (approximately)

 

Spring Sunflower Production Technology

Salient features :

  • After realising the yield potential of sunflower in the non-conventional season i.e. spring season in the north-western plains of India, the improved production technology was developed including sowing of improved variety/hybrid of the crop in second fortnight of February at plant spacing of 50-60 x 25-30 cm for tall type of hybrids and 45 x 20 cm for other varieties by dibbling method or furrow-irrigated raised-bed (FIRB) land configuration (75/45cm).
  • Apply 40 kg/ha each of N, P2O5 and K2O and 30 kg S/ha before sowing the crop and 40 kg N/ha at 30 days after sowing. Fifty per cent of nutrient requirement of the crop can be substituted through organic sources.
  • Spray pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha in 600 litre water within three days after sowing the crop for control of weeds.
  • Irrigate the crop at seedling, button formation, flowering and seed development stage.
  • Hand pollination for better seed setting. Intercropping with summer mungbean  or cowpea (1:1) enhances the overall productivity and profitability.

Performance results:

  • Spring cultivation of sunflower productivity and profitability is 30-40% higher than kharif sunflower.  

Benefits:

  • With improved technology gross returns are 50,000-60,000/ha and net returns Rs 35,000-45,000/ha over a period of 3 months.
  • Thus, net gain over conventional cultivation is Rs 15,000-20,000/ha.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Sunflower oil is of very good quality from health point of view.
  • Sunflower cultivation with improved technology in north-west part of India will reduce country’s dependence on other countries for vegetables oils. 

 

Summer Mungbean for higher sustainebility of Rice-Wheat Cropping System

Pusa Vishal, PS-16, Pusa Baisakhi, Pusa 9531, SML 668 or any other variety having 60-65 days duration

?Performance results:

  • Growing of summer mungbean in addition to its own production (0.8-1.2 t/ha), increases the total cereal grain production in rice-wheat rotation from 0.7 to 1.2 t/ha, which is quite substantial. Incorporation of mungbean residues brings out considerable nitrogen economy in rice-wheat rotation (35-40 kg N/ha).

Likely cost:

  • Approx. Cost of cultivation: Rs. 18,000/ ha

Benefits:

  • Net return: Rs. 20,000-22,000/ ha
  • Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil improve due to inclusion of summer mungbean in rice-wheat system.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Mungbean adds about 35-40 kg N/ha, hence the need for fertilizer application in the succeeding crop of rice is less. The nitrogen produced is pollution free and does not involve artificial energy to produce fertilizer. The income of the farmers is raised.