Bio Fertilizer

Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) has made significant contributions in the development of improved cultivars and their relevant production, protection and processing technologies in fourteen mandated crops, covering cereals, coarse millets, pulses, oilseeds, fodder, fibre  and horticultural crops. These crop varieties have been widely adopted in their recommended areas / agro-climatic zones. 

 

Biofort

  

  • Microbial formulation for  effective micronutrient mobilization to grains
  • 13 - 40% increase in Fe, Zn and Mn concentrations in rice and wheat  grains
  • Enhanced plant growth and nutrient uptake
  • 10-15% increase in yields
  • 40-60 kg N savings/ha 

Unique selling propositions

  • Promising environment-friendly formulation for rice and wheat crops
  • Already tested for more than 5 years and promising in the rice and wheat cropping system
  • Micronutrient enrichment in grains and plant parts, beneficial for human consumption or use as fodder
  • Can provide  40-60 kg N savings/ha and enhances N, P content of plant
  • Compatible with chemical fertilizers
  • Can be used as seed dressing or seedling dip or mixed in soil before sowing/transplanting
  • Application rate is 300 g /acre

Cyanobiocon

  

  • Biocontrol agent (s)  effective against soil borne fungal diseases
  • 10-40% reduction in disease severity
  • 12-30% increase in growth,  N and P uptake and yields

Unique selling propositions

  • First  biocontrol formulations based on cyanobacteria (Calothrix /Anabaena laxa)
  • Formulations show promising activity against a wide spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi
  • Endoglucanase enzymes have been characterized and genes identified (sequences submitted to Gen Bank)
  • Also bring about significant enhancement of plant growth, in terms of fresh/dry weight/fruit weight  and enhanced N, P uptake by plant
  • Are more effective as compared to with chemical /biological control measures
  • Low cost environment-friendly options with no crop specificity as biocontrol agents
  • Can be developed for use as seed dressing or seedling dip or mixed in soil before sowing

 

Cyanonuticon

 

  • Cyanobacterial formulation, involving a combination of four synergistically acting cyanobacterial strains
  • This can lead to 25-30% savings in nitrogenous fertilizers and 10-12% increase in yields of rice and wheat, besides promoting plant growth, soil heath and C-N sequestration in soil.

Unique selling propositions

  • A single environment-friendly formulation for rice and wheat crops
  • Enrich carbon status and soil health
  • Found to be promising under SRI and conventional mode of rice and wheat cropping system
  • Can provide 20-25 kg N savings/hand enhanced N, P uptake by plant
  • Compatible with chemical fertilizers
  • Can be used as seed dressing or seedling dip or mixed in soil before sowing/transplanting
  • Application rate is 300 g /acre

NPK Liquid

 

Potash Solubilizing

 

Zinc Solubilizing

Biofertilizer technology (Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSB, Rhizobium and BGA) – Carrier based

 

Characteristics (suitability/ recommended for the specific/different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technologies, safety/quarantine factors incorporated etc.) :

  • Recommended for different agroclimatic regions. The technology was developed at IARI and no technology earlier existed on biological inoculants. 
  • Biofertilizers are products of beneficial microorganisms which increase agricultural production by supplying major nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus. 
  • Different inoculants or biofertilizers are suitable for use in various crops.
  • The carrier based inoculants have to follow BIS standards and ensures quality.

Performance results (yield, quality, level of resistance for insect/pest and diseases etc.) :

  • The inoculation of N fixing inoculants (Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillumand BGA) results in saving of 20 kg N /ha and increase yield of leguminous crops, cereals, millets by 15-20%.
  • Inoculation of PSB could save 20-25 kg P/ha and increase in yields ranged from 10-50% on crops such as wheat, paddy, cowpea, soybean, lentil, gram and potato

Social/environmental/other benefits :

  • The growth in agricultural production in the last three decades has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the use of chemical fertilizers, causing serious concern.
  • Foremost among these concerns is the effect of excessive fertilizers on the quality of soil and ground water.
  • The use of environmental friendly biofertilizers can cut down the use of chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers have definite advantage over chemical fertilizers.
  • It is economical to use biofertilizers as they are a cheap source of nutrients when compared to chemical fertilizers.
  • Biofertilisers in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus, also provides certain growth promoting substances like hormones, vitamins, and amino acids that improves the plant health and vigour.
  • Continuous use of chemical fertilisers adversely affects the soil structure whereas biofertilizers when applied to soil improve the soil structure.
  •  The chemical fertilizers are toxic at higher doses where as biofertilizers have no toxic effects.

Status of commercialization/IPO rights etc. :

  • Technology commercialized.

 

Compost inoculant

 

Characteristics (suitability/ recommended for the specific/different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technologies, safety/quarantine factors incorporated etc.) :

  • Agricultural residues available in India are estimated to be 600 million tones which can be converted into good quality compost through the use of ligno-cellulolytic microorganisms. The degraded material can be incorporated in the soil for the plant growth promotion as well as to maintain sustainability by improving soil health.
  • On the basis of the findings of the research, a consortium of four fungi was developed for composting of crop residues. The inoculant titled “IARI Compost Inoculum” is being commercialized. A packet of 300g is enough to decompose one ton of organic matter within 90 days.
  • All sort of crop residues may be composted by this inoculants in perforated brick-tanks. The crop residues may be supplemented with poultry droppings (8:1) or urea at 0.5% to bring down C: N ratio of the composting mixture. Rock phosphate (1%) along with inoculum containing four fungi may be applied at 0.3 kg/tonne of  moistened crop residues. By this technique, compost with C: N ratio of 15:1 can be prepared within 70-80 days.

Performance results (yield, quality, level of resistance for insect/pest and diseases etc.) :

  • Good quality mature compost with C: N ratio of 15:1 can be prepared within 70-80 days.

Additional information in terms of economic benefits over conventional material/technology along with any other pertinent information :

  • The use of microbial consortia for bioconversion of biomass into compost reduces the time for decomposition.
  • The compost prepared is mature and of good quality and can be safely applied to any crop.

Social/environmental/other benefits :

  • Continuous use of chemical fertilisers adversely affects the soil structure whereas compost when applied to soil improves the soil structure and adds organic C to the soil.
  • It is an important component of integrated nutrient management as well as organic farming.

Status of commercialization/IPO rights etc. :

  • Commercialized and the technology is being used in IARI for conversion of biomass into compost.

 

Liquid Azotobacter inoculants

 

Characteristics (suitability/ recommended for the specific/different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technologies, safety/quarantine factors incorporated etc.) :

  • Suitable for different agro climatic regions.
  •  The Product is a cyst-based liquid biofertilizer of Azotobacter. It is superior than the carrier based incoulants on following accounts:
    • The carrier-based conventional Azotobacter bioinoculants consist of vegetative cells of Azotobacter and have a short shelf life of about 6 months and must be stored below 300C.
    • Liquid bioinoculant is cyst based and can be stored at room temperatures.
    • It has a very high microbial load of more than 1012 cells /ml.
    • It is convenient to use unlike carrier based inoculants which are cumbersome to use.
    • Formulation has a considerably enhanced shelf life of more than 3 years as compared to 6 months of carrier based formulation.
    • No loss in plant growth promoting activities in formulation even on long storage.
    • Bacterial protectants added to the formulation improve the shelf life, survival of the culture on seed and also help the culture to regain active growth under favourable conditions.

Performance results (yield, quality, level of resistance for insect/pest and diseases etc.) :

  • Performance is at par or slightly better than carrier based inoculnat.

Additional information in terms of economic benefits over conventional material/technology along with any other pertinent information :

  • Azotobacter liquid biofertilizer can be used as inoculant for most of field crops viz. cereals, millets, vegetables, fruits, fiber and oil producing commercial crops.
  • Seed bacterization with this biofertilizer can improve germination of seeds leading to better seedling health and vigour. 
  • When applied as seed inoculant it can add 15-20 kg/ha nitrogen to the soil.
  • The yield increases usually range around 10-35%.

Social/environmental/other benefits :

  • The use of Azotobacter can cut down the use of nitrogen fertilizers.
  • It is economical to use Azotobacter  biofertilizer as it is a cheap source of nitrogen when compared to chemical fertilizers.
  •  In addition to nitrogen, also provides certain growth promoting substances like hormones, vitamins, and amino acids that improves the plant health and vigour.
  • Continuous use of chemical fertilisers adversely affects the soil structure whereas biofertilizers when applied to soil improve the soil structure.
  • The chemical fertilizers are toxic at higher doses where as biofertilizers have no toxic effects.

Status of commercialization/IPO rights etc. :

  • Commercialized.

 

Liquid PSB inoculants

 

Characteristics (suitability/ recommended for the specific/different agro-climatic conditions, how it is an improvement over the existing technologies, safety/quarantine factors incorporated etc.) :

  • Liquid formulation of the phosphate solubilizing bacterial culture consisting ofPseudomonas striata.
  • Enhanced shelf life for two years with viable count of 108 cfu/ml. The other benefits are production of IAA and other growth promoting substances. 

Performance results (yield, quality, level of resistance for insect/pest and diseases etc.) :

  • Performance is at par or slightly better than carrier based inoculnat.

Additional information in terms of economic benefits over conventional material/technology along with any other pertinent information :

  • Converts insoluble phosphate (Rock Phosphates, soil inert P fraction and other low grade inert P sources) into soluble orthophosphate which easily available to plants.
  • It can be applied to all crops.
  • Enhances P uptake and yield of different crops by 10-35%.
  • In general, 40% saving of superphosphate by application of rock phosphate and PSB biofertilizer.

Social/environmental/other benefits :

  • The use of PSB can cut down the use of P- fertilizers.
  • It is economical to use PSB biofertilizer as it is a cheap source of phosphorus when compared to chemical fertilizers.
  • In addition to phosphorus, also provides certain growth promoting substances like hormones, vitamins, and amino acids that improves the plant health and vigour.
  • Continuous use of chemical fertilisers adversely affects the soil structure whereas biofertilizers when applied to soil improve the soil structure.
  • The chemical fertilizers are toxic at higher doses where as biofertilizers have no toxic effects.

Status of commercialization/IPO rights etc. :

  • Commercialized.

 

Technology for Preparation of Enriched Compost

 

Salient technical features :

  • A new technology has been developed to prepare enriched compost using low-grade rock phosphate, waste mica and crop residues.
  • For this purpose, a trench or pit is filled layer-wise (5-6 layers). Biodegradable organic materials like crop residues, farm wastes, animal feed wastes and tree leaves are spread on the floor of the trench (about 20 cm thick layer).
  • A layer of rock phosphate (RP), followed by waste mica is then spread over biodegradable organic material.
  • Cattle dung is made into slurry by adding water, and this is sprinkled over RP and waste mica layer.
  • Layering is repeated till whole compostable materials are added.
  • Moisture content is maintained throughout the composting period at 60% of water holding capacity.
  • Periodic turning (monthly interval) is done to provide aeration. Composting is continued for 4 months.

Performance results (with respect to efficiency, sustainability etc.) :

  • The enriched compost contains 1.4–1.5% total N, 5.0–6.0% total P2O5 and 2.5–3.0% total K2O, respectively.
  • Therefore, addition of one tonne (1000 kg) of enriched compost will substitute about 14–15 kg of N, 50–60 kg of P2O5 and 25–30 kg of K2O, respectively.

Likely cost (cost of interventions and output per unit area) :

  • For the preparation of 1 tonne of enriched compost, 1 tonne of biomass (crop residues/ biodegradable wastes, 200 kg low–grade rock phosphate (18–20% P2O5), 200 kg waste mica (9–10% K2O), and 100 kg fresh cattle dung are required.
  • Cost of preparation of enriched compost is about Rs. 2,500 per tonne.

Benefits :

  • Enriched compost would reduce dependence on costly phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
  • Hence, it will reduce cost of cultivation in one hand and increase income of the farmers on the other.

Social/environment /other benefits :

  • Large quantities of crop residues viz., crop residues/ stubbles may be recycled back to the field after converting them into quality manure.
  • Substantial amounts of rock phosphate and waste mica may be recycled in agriculture as a source of phosphorus and potassium to plant need and thus lead to the utilization of indigenous mineral resources.
  • Huge amount of foreign exchange can be saved partly or wholly on import of costly P and K–fertilizers.