Agri Chemicals

Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) has made significant contributions in the development of improved cultivars and their relevant production, protection and processing technologies in fourteen mandated crops, covering cereals, coarse millets, pulses, oilseeds, fodder, fibre and horticultural crops. These crop varieties have been widely adopted in their recommended areas / agro-climatic zones.

 

Anethum sowa (dill) seeds based insecticide synergist's dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole

Insecticide synergists Technologies

Insecticide synergists play a significant role in enhancing effectiveness of the insecticides and  countering emergence of  resistance in insect pests

Salient technical features :

  • Most of the insecticide synergists are synthetic and may suffer from undesired effects.
  • Know-how has been developed for the preparation of plant origin insecticide synergistsdillapiole from Anethumsowa seeds and its catalytic conversion to equally effective dihydrodillapiole.
  • The compounds (dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole) are effective as insecticide synergists, and as mixed function oxidase (MFO) inhibitors.

Performance results:

  • The synergistic activity of dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole is comparable to commercial insecticide synergist piperonylbutoxide.
  • Raw materials, solvents, catalysts, etc are locally available

Benefits:

  • The products enhance the insecticidal effectiveness of pyrethroid, carbamate and other group of insecticides.
  • Products are unique as they reduce the cost of the pesticidalinput  and check  emergence of insecticide resistance in insect pests.
  • The product(s) are safe and cost effective

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Environment friendly botanical synergist

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Technology transferred to NRDC for commercialization.

 

Decontamination of pesticide residues from vegetables

Vegetables in the market are often laced with toxic pesticides. These xenobiotic should be less than maximum residue limit (MRL) otherwise they can prove hazardous for the consumers.

Salient technical features :

  • It was attempted to reduce pesticide (malathion, cyfluthrin and indoxacarb) residues from the vegetable by using safe chemicals.
  • The invention differs from earlier report in either the use of a microorganism or using a toxic chemical whose adoption can adversely affect the quality of vegetable or edible commodity itself.
  • Since addition of hazardous substances makes the vegetable non-consumable, the process deals with removing residues of pesticides present in vegetables by using a combination of non-toxic chemicals.
  • Degrading synthetic pesticides with microorganisms are reported. But the use of microbes is not acceptable to people at large.
  • A need is felt for discovering novel and safe products/ methods of detoxification of pesticides as it amounts to value addition of vegetable.

Performance results:

  • It was attempted to remove/ reduce pesticide residues from the vegetable. Vegetables in the market are often laced with toxic organophosphorus and new pesticides.
  • These xenobiotic should be less than maximum residue limit (MRL).
  • The technology is able to do it.

Benefits:

  • The consumer will benefit by getting a decontaminated vegetable.
  • There is a need to remove/ reduce and transfer these toxicants from contaminated vegetables, so that the health of consumer is not adversely affected.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Society will get a safe and improved product at affordable price.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Application NO. 258/DEL/2012

 

Improvement of fertilizer-N use efficiency through nitrification inhibitors and slow release products

The present invention reports the development and use of potential nitrification inhibitors and their compositions for improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and processes of obtaining such products.

Salient technical features :

  • Required raw materials are readily and abundantly available.
  • The products are stable, safe and cost effective.
  • The process can be demonstrated at bench scale
  • The compounds are effective as nitrification inhibitors / slow N release products

Performance results:

  • The laboratory studies have been done in IARI and the results have shown promise.

Benefits:

  • Nitrification inhibitors should be viewed as management tools to reduce N loss.
  • Nitrification inhibitors are most likely to increase yields when N is applied at or below the optimal rate.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Nitrification is implicated in several nitrogen loss pathways that decrease (N) use efficiency and contribute to environmental pollution along with subsequent health hazards.
  • Inhibiting  nitrification  is  an  effective  means  of  ameliorating  the  economic  effects  and  ecological consequences of  nitrogen  losses  from  the  soil.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Patent Application No. 3461/DEL/2005

Any special requirement for its successful realization ; any other standards etc.:

  • Upscaling of technology to pilot scale and generation of toxicological data

 

Neem Oil Coated Urea

A Technology for Improved Nitrogen Use Efficiency
Increasing NUE and decreasing nitrogen fertilizer rates can markedly contribute to the conservation of air and water quality.

Salient technical features :

  • The coating of neem-oil at the rate of 0.05% onto prilled urea

         Principle: On average, the recovery of fertilizer N in India ranges from 20–50% for rice. Raun and Johnson (1999) have estimated nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) below 33% for cereal production on a global scale.

  • The unaccounted 67% N fertilizer goes to waste through different routes, with resulting contamination of water bodies and the atmosphere.
  • Increasing NUE and decreasing nitrogen fertilizer rates can markedly contribute to the conservation of air and water quality.
  • Under these circumstances, increasing crop yield per unit area through the use of appropriate nitrogen management practices has become an essential component of modern crop production.

Performance results:

  • Neem oil coated urea has recorded 7 to 11% higher productivity of rice-wheat cropping system, increased N concentrations and uptake by rice grain, and also a higher recovery of applied N.

Likely cost:

  • Cost of neem-oil and some additional cost for the coating will be needed and it will depend on the prevailing prices in the market. However, in general 2-5% additional cost is involved compared to prilled urea.

Benefits:

  • This technology will increase the productivity of rice-wheat cropping system by 7-11% under different agro-climatic regions.

Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • Less environmental pollution by decreased ammonia volatilization loss and also reduced NO3 contamination in the ground aquifer.

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Neem-oil coated urea is available in the market and is in huge demand by the farmers, especially rice and vegetable growers.
  • During 2010-11 nearly ten thousand tonnes of neem-oil coated urea was produced by different fertilizer companies in India.

 

Pesticidal oxime esters

Insecticide Technologies

The pesticidaloxime esters and other additives including neembiopesticides. The present process can be demonstrated as bench scale.

Salient technical features:

  • Know-how has been developed for the production of pesticidaloxime esters following reaction of synthetic carbonyls as alkoxy/phenoxy/alkoxyphenoxybenzaldehdes, and phytocarbonyls such as carvone, citral, citronellal, fenchone, pulegone and the likes. 
  • The pesticidal compositions may include an inert solid or liquid carrier(s)/diluent(s), surfactans and other additives and other bioactives such as neembiopesticides. The present process can be demonstrated as bench scale.

Performance results:

  • The compounds in various preparations have been found effective to combat mosquito (Culexfatigans), and agricultural insect pests namelySpodopteralitura, and Helicoverpaarmigera. The products are additionally effective against plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Combination of oxime ester and azadirachtin is more active and additionally provide knock-down property.

Benefits:

  • Being environment friendly they can be used for control of pests on vegetables and fruits.

 

Pusa Hydrogel

Pusa Hydrogel is a product for increasing agricultural productivity primarily through improvement in use efficiency of water .

The technology includes bench scale process for its production along with the concomitant use package under diverse agricultural situations.

Salient technical features:

  • Employs cellulosic (a natural polymer)  backbone
  • Absorbs a minimum of 350 times of  its dry weight in water and gradually releases it
  • Low rate of application (1-1.5 kg / acre)
  • Exhibits absorbency at high temperatures (40-500C), suitable for semi-arid and arid regions
  • Effective in soil for a minimum period of one crop season
  • Improves physical properties of soils and the soil less media
  • Improves seed germination and the rate of seedling emergence
  • Reduces leaching of agro-inputs such as herbicides and fertilizers
  • Reduces irrigation and fertigation requirements of crops
  • Reduces nursery establishment period
  • Helps plants withstand extended moisture stress

Benefits:

Based on the farmers’ field trials and feedback obtained through interaction with licensees and the applicators, Pusa Hydrogel application in almost all the test crops, such as cereals, vegetables, oilseeds, flowers, spices etc. has resulted in significant improvement in the quality of agricultural produce:

  • 30-50% reduction in frequency of irrigation thus reducing drudgery in terms of labour involved in frequent irrigations, particularly, in vegetables
  • Reduction in the dosage of fertilizers to the turn of 22-30%
  • Improvement in soil quality

 Social/environmental/other benefits:

  • No effect on environment
  • An average return of Rs. 5000-7000/- per Rs. 1000/ investment as used hydrogel
  • Significant reduction in fertilizer usage

Status of commercialization/IP rights etc.:

  • Pusa Hydrogel has been licensed to six companies for commercialization.
  • Indian patent has been granted.

 Any special requirement for its successful realization; any other standards etc.:

  • Need of extensive Promotional and Support Programmes
  • Need to include it in village development programmes
  • Need to introduce subsidy on the product like fertilizers